An introduction to Elixir Plug

Plug is the specification that enables web frameworks written in the Elixir programming language to talk to different web servers running in the Erlang virtual machine. If you’re a rubyist, Plug is to Elixir what Rack is to Ruby.

Why should I care about Plug?

Understanding the basics of Plug will make it easier for you to understand Elixir’s go-to web framework Phoenix, and any web framework written in Elixir.

Ok then, that’s cool. So what is Plug? Explain to me like I am actually five

In simple terms, a Plug is a bit of code that receives a data structure, transforms it, and returns this transformed data structure. The data structure that a plug receives is conventionally called a connection. This connection data structure contains everything we need to know about the incoming web request, like host, path, query parameters, etc.

Here’s a quick glimpse at what a plug connection struct might look like:

  host: "",
  path_info: ["bar", "baz"],

Ok, explain like I’m an adult now, just to see

Plug defines a simple interface, and any code that conforms to this interface can be used in a Plug application. This makes it easy to build small, focused and reusable bits of code, and then use Plug to compose them into a larger application.

Plug provides connection adapters for different web servers running in the Erlang VM, like Cowboy. In practice, this means you could switch from Cowboy to another web server without having to change any of your code (other than the code that specifies which connection adapter to use).

Ok got it. So what’s the Plug interface exactly?

A Plug comes in two forms: function plug and module plug.

Plug-compliant code must be either:

  • a function that receives a connection and set of options as arguments, and returns the connection.


  • a module that implements an init/1 and a call/2 function.

A function plug receives a connection and set of options as arguments, and returns the connection:

def hello_world_plug(conn, _opts) do
  |> put_resp_content_type("text/plain")
  |> send_resp(200, "Hello world")

A module plug implements an init/1 and a call/2 function:

defmodule MyPlug do
  def init([]), do: false
  def call(conn, _opts), do: conn

Here, init/1 initializes the options. call/2 receives the connection and the initialized options, and returns the connection.

As everything in Elixir, a connection is immutable, so every manipulation of a connection returns a updated copy of the connection.

conn = put_resp_content_type(conn, "text/plain")
conn = send_resp(conn, 200, "ok")

A simple example: “Hello, world!”

Create a new project: mix new pluggy_mc_plug_app

cd into the project directory and add Plug and Cowboy to mix.exs as dependencies:

def deps do
    {:cowboy, "~> 2.0"},
    {:plug, "~> 1.0"}

List both :cowboy and :plug as your application dependencies:

def application do
  [applications: [:cowboy, :plug]]

Run mix deps.get in your terminal to install the dependencies.

Then create a PluggyMcPlug module:

defmodule PluggyMcPlug do
  import Plug.Conn

  def init(options) do
    # initialize options


  def call(conn, _opts) do
    |> put_resp_content_type("text/plain")
    |> send_resp(200, "Hello, world!")
$ iex -S mix
iex> {:ok, _} = Plug.Adapters.Cowboy2.http PluggyMcPlug, []
{:ok, #PID<...>}

Point your browser at http://localhost:4000.

You should see “Hello, world!”.