What's new (for me) in Javascript

After finishing my echo server in Java, my mentors gave me my new assignment: write another Tic Tac Toe in NodeJS.

This is the first time since 2014 that I write an entire application in vanilla Javascript from scratch. Since then, I have been mostly touching up existing code, often jQuery, or using frameworks like EmberJS.

My limited experience with the language had been painful, so I was apprehensive of diving back into vanilla Javascript

As it turns out, I shouldn’t have been. Javascript has changed a lot, for the better. Less quirky, less verbose.

Here is a quick overview of the novelties that made it fun to write Javascript.

Class declarations

class Cat {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;

The class keyword was introduced by ES2015 and is not a class implementation; it’s syntactic sugar over Javascript’s prototypal model.

let cat = new Cat('Felix');
// 'Felix'


class Player {
  constructor(symbol) {
    this.symbol = symbol;

class HumanPlayer extends Player {
  constructor(name, symbol) {
    this.name = name;
let humanPlayer = new HumanPlayer('John', 'X');

// 'John'
// 'X'

Functions Rest Parameters

function sum(...numbers) {
  return numbers.reduce((previous, current) => {
    return previous + current;
console.log(sum(1, 2, 3));
// 6
let [head, ...tail] = [1, 2, 3, 4];
// [2, 3, 4]

Arrow functions

// ES5
let markedCells = cells.filter(function(cell) {
  return cell.isMarked();

// ES6
let markedCells = cells.filter(cell => cell.isMarked());

ES6 modules

The export statement is used to export a class, functions or primitive values from the module so they can be used by other scripts with the import statement.

There are two kinds of exports: default exports and named exports.

Named exports
// exports a function declared earlier
export { myFunction };

// exports a constant
export const doublePi = Math.PI * 2;
Default exports (class)
// cat.js
export default class Cat {}
// other-file.js
import Cat from 'cat';
let cat = new Cat();
// ..
Default exports (function)
// math.js
export default function square(x) {
  return x * x;
// other-file.js
import square from 'math';
// 4

async / await

Promises were an improvement on callbacks. Async/await is an improvement on promises.

Specifically, async/await makes it easy to use multiple promises by allowing us to use promises synchronously. It reads nicer than promise chaining.

function fooAfter2Seconds() {
  return new Promise(resolve => {
    setTimeout(() => {
    }, 2000);

function barAfter2Seconds() {
  return new Promise(resolve => {
    setTimeout(() => {
    }, 2000);

async function fooBar() {
  let foo = await fooAfter2Seconds();

  let bar = await barAfter2Seconds();

// After 2 seconds:
// 'foo'
// After 2 more seconds:
// 'bar'

Inside the foobar function, the second asynchronous function barAfter2Seconds is called only once the first asynchronous function fooAfter2Seconds has resolved.

let and const

A variable declared with let is limited in scope to the block, statement, or expression on which it is used. This is unlike the var keyword, which defines a variable globally, or locally to an entire function regardless of block scope.

Constants are block-scoped, much like variables defined using the let statement. The value of a constant cannot change through re-assignment, and it can’t be redeclared.